Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes al tema 4ESO FiQ 2016-2017 ENGLISH (from article 47)..


  - We are going to learn in this lesseon about a magnitud close related to forces, the pressure into a fluid and the statics into fluids. We will also learn too about atmospheric pressure and other issues.

    We will begin studying how a force acting over a Surface can cause pressure.

    * More links will be added soon :

     Pressure 1



   - Next week, during the watch hours (horas de guardia) you will have to do the following tasks. Pay attention to them because they consist in a very important concept (friction).

  - TASK 1 :  Watch the following videos in order to remember the most important concepts about Newton’s laws we have already studied and after that watch the videos about friction because later you will try to achieve a few exercise with a friction force involved :

   - Video 1 of a friction force excercise.   (Pay attention when watching this video!!)

   - TASK 2 :   * Because this friction force exercises are not the easiest at all, I’m gonna post for you a few videos in spanish in order to get them well understood :

   - TASK 3Read very carefully pages 63, 64 and 65 of your book about friction.
                                Look up and read carefully the examples done there on this pages.

   - TASK 4 :   - Do the exercises  10, 11, 12, 13 and 14  from pages  63, 64 and 65  of your book.


  - Now read a few definitions about the difference between mass and weight. After reading them try to write your own definition with your own words about the difference between mass and weight :

   Definition 1 :

In common usage, the mass of an object is often referred to as its weight, though these are in fact different concepts and quantities. In scientific contexts, mass refers loosely to the amount of "matter" in an object (though "matter" may be difficult to define), whereas weight refers to the force exerted on an object by gravity.[1] In other words, an object with a mass of 1.0 kilogram will weigh approximately 9.81 newtons on the surface of the Earth (its mass multiplied by the gravitational field strength).

(The newton is a unit of force, while the kilogram is a unit of mass.)

Its weight will be less on Mars (where gravity is weaker), more on Saturn, and negligible in space when far from any significant source of gravity, but it will always have the same mass.


    Definition 2 :

   A better scientific definition of mass is its description as being composed of inertia, which is the resistance of an object being accelerated when acted on by an external force. Gravitational "weight" is the force created when a mass is acted upon by a gravitational field and the object is not allowed to free-fall, but is supported or retarded by a mechanical force, such as the surface of a planet. Such a force constitutes weight.[2] This force can be added to by any other kind of force.

   Definition 3 :

While the weight of an object varies in proportion to the strength of the gravitational field, its mass is constant (ignoring relativistic effects) as long as no energy or matter is added to the object.[3] Accordingly, for an astronaut on a spacewalk in orbit (a free-fall), no effort is required to hold a communications satellite in front of him; it is "weightless". However, since objects in orbit retain their mass and inertia, an astronaut must exert ten times as much force to accelerate a 10‑ton satellite at the same rate as one with a mass of only 1 ton.

On Earth, a swing seat can demonstrate this relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. If one were to stand behind a large adult sitting stationary on a swing and give him a strong push, the adult would temporarily accelerate to a quite low speed, and then swing only a short distance before beginning to swing in the opposite direction. Applying the same impetus to a small child would produce a much greater speed.

  Definition 4 :

  Definition 5 :

   * Have you really understood the difference ?  then...try to do these exercises :

      Wording  1: 

     You are on the earth and have a bag of apples which weights 85N.  If you were to carry
the bag of apples to the surface of the moon, where the gravitational field is
only 1.67 N/kg, how much would the apples weigh?

       Wording 2 :

      An 80 kg person on
top of Mt. Everest would weigh only 781.6 N. 
How strong is the Earth’s gravitational field on top of Mt. Everest?

        Wording 3 :

       If you went to the
moon, how much would you weigh?



 - We are gonna watch the following videos in order to talk about what a normal forcé is and how we must manage it in relation to work out the net forcé :



 - First of all we are gonna check a few important questions about forces in dynamics to understand what it means :


     * ( Here I’ll post several videos or more links about dynamics in the following days).

  - Make sure that you study and look the following important ítems up :

     1) Forces on an object.
     2) Tension forcé.
     3) Newton's First law.
     4) Inertia and mass.
     5) State of motion.
     6) Balances and unbalanced forces.
     7) Meaning of force.
     8) Types of forces.
     9) Drawing Free-body diagrams.
     10) Determining the net force.
     11) Newton's second law.
     12) Finding acceleration.
     13) Newton's third law.
     14) Hooke's law.
     15) Equilibrium.
     16) Centre of gravity.
     17) Weight.
     18) Types of collision.


 - Watch the following videos about so many different kind of forces we can check :



             MAY THE FORCE BE WITH YOU !!!

- We’re gonna check first a nice exam example about this lesson and you’ll see how easy is handle or deal with this kind of exercises. You only have to put up with me or bearing me for a while :


                                     EXAM EXAMPLE 1          

                        EXAM EXAMPLE exercises 1,2,3 and 4 RESOLUTION           
                        EXAM EXAMPLE exercise 5 RESOLUTION

                        EXAM EXAMPLE exercise 6 RESOLUTION

                        EXAM EXAMPLE exercise 7 RESOLUTION

                        EXAM EXAMPLE exercise 8 RESOLUTION

 - You can follow a nice explanation video about NON CONCURRENT PARALLEL FORCES separated certain distance :

  -  After you’ve practiced and watched the different videos, try to do the following exercise by your own. Check previous videos as many times as you need to develope the exercise by yourself. In case you cannot achieve the problem’s solution you have the problem explained at the video below :

  > Exercise :

          A 15kg metal bar 6m long has two objects hanged at the opposite ends of the bar. At the left end of the bar hangs an 20kg object and at the right end of the bar the second 30kg object. Find where exactly the net force must be placed in order not to let the system fall. Work out the value of the net or balance force, the exact spot it must be placed, the direction and its sense.


   - Check the following link to begin the next lesson about how forces act :

                                                 FORCES AND DYNAMICS.


- At this article will be hung pictures and video about uniform circular motion practice we did yesterday using the skates :

   >  VIDEO.


 - This is a little drawing about the practice we have done of the uniform circular motion with our skates using a spinning movement at the playground.
    On friday we’ll check the times and data we have taken and will work out angular velocity and will talk about all of this.


   - Try to do this exercise. If you cannot achieve it, watch the video and look at and listen to the explanation, but try first doing it without watching the video :

  > Exercise :

           A Stone is thrown from the top of a building with an initial velocity of 20m/s straight upward. The building is 50m high, and the Stone just misses the edge of the roof on its way down. Determine :

 a) The time needed for the Stone to reach its máximum height.
 b) The máximum height.
 c) The time needed for the Stone to return to the level of the thrower.
 d) The velocity of the Stone at this instant.
 e) The velocity and position of the Stone at time = 5 secons.

                                                      VIDEO WITH THE PROBLEM’S SOLUTION.


  -  Let's look the following link up in order to learn about circular motion :

                                                           CIRCULAR MOTION THINGLINK.


    -  Watch the following video and later we will do a similar exercise all together :


-  Watch the previous video and the next ones you find below and try to do the following two exercises at home :  (you still have the videos with the solution in case you don’t know how to finish them).

1-    Problem 1 :

        a) A child throws just upright to the sky a little stone with a starting velocity of 6 m/s.  Find the time the Stone takes to reach the higher position.

        b) After that, work out the distance this stone goes over when it finally hits the ground at the end of its movement. How long does the Stone take to arrive again to the ground from its higher position on the top?.

        c) Work out the total displacement the stone does from the beginning to the end of its movement and the total time of this movement from the beginning to the end.

                         VIDEO 1 WITH THE PROBLEM’S SOLUTION.

2- Problem 2 :

    From the top of a skyscraper a stone is thrown in a straight line motion to the ground with a starting velocity of 2 m/s. if the stone takes 5 seconds to hit the ground, work out how high the skyscraper is.

                         VIDEO 2 WITH THE PROBLEM’S SOLUTION.

 (There is a mistake at the video because , as the Stone goes down some direction to gravity,  the starting velocity must have same sign as gravity, if I write minus sing for gravity I must write also minus sign for starting velocity.
   I should have written  - v0  instead of + v0 for the starting velocity. 
   So It must be written  :       0 = h - v0.t - 1/2.g.t2     ).

               Then the skyscraper’s high is :  h = 10 + 122’5 = 132’5 m

    Once you have tried to do these exercises and watched the videos, will you do a few more similar exercises next Friday in class. Then it is important you do at home the suggested activities on this article 118.


   - Now that you have watched all these videos and last friday you have also tried a few more similar exercises in class, try now a few more ones like that at home as homework :

   Do exercises 43, 27, 58 and 59 from your book and have them ready on Monday.


- Our students explain in these videos , throughout a canvas poster,  what they consider as most important since they are studying the chemistry and physics subject this course :


     >  Angel’s canvas video.

     >  Marina’s canvas video.

         Marina’s canvas poster can be seen on detail here.



  - Here I post to you several links in which you can read and see the kind of questions you will find when doing this "competències bàsiques" test :

     * At the following link you can check every "competències bàsiques" test  :

                  ( The tests you did just last day are already posted also  ).

                                                   COMPETÈNCIES BÀSIQUES EXAMS.

     FILE 0   (Look up both questions and answers).

     FILE 0a (Aquest és el full on es posen les respostes del quadernet del file 0).

     FILE 0b (I aquí teniu el full de respostes omplert amb les respostes correctes).

     FILE 0c  (Aquí teniu l’explicació de cada resposta correcta perquè és correcta).

     FILE 1.  ( Look the questions and the answers in order to get used to them).
                   (Echa un vistazo tanto al tipo de preguntas como a la repuesta correcta
                    para acostumbrarte a ambas. Ves bajando a lo largo del archivo y verás
                    varios tipos de preguntas y su correspondiente respuesta).

     FILE 2.  (Aquí si aneu baixant pel PDF, a sota, trobareu exemples de preguntes i
                    la millor resposta).


   - Fot the next week I will not be in class, you all have to do this work:

    > ON MONDAY 13TH FEBRUARY:   Make a poster at the page :



      You’ll have to register at the page using an email address and a password and later you can begin to build your poster choosing the different images and elements the page offers you to create your poster.

     The poster you have to do can be about anything you like from all issues we have already studied since the beginning of the course.  It can be about chemistry, physics, movement, graphs, definitions, vocabulary, experiments, subjects, whatever you like about our chemistry and physics matter, etc.

        - At the following link you can see one poster exemple I have made :

                                                                      POSTER  EXAMPLE

                 ( Do click at my example in order to see the poster’s three pages).



                               Do the "competències bàsiques exams" at article 116.


                               Go ahead with the "competències bàsiques", read the correct answers and the questions in article 116, read and look up the files I’ve posted in article 116.


  - Activity for today :

   Sit with a partner in class and try, everyone in his own sheet, to write by your own the two demonstrations we have seen in class about the accelerated motion formulas.

 1) Vf2 - Vo2 = 2a.d

 2) Xf = X0 + V0.t + 1/2 a . t2

 If you can not write it by your own you can look up here the blog and continue the demonstration til you understand it and are able to write it all by your own.



- You can watch the video with the GLYCERINE MRU experience we’ve done today at class at the following link  :

                                        4ESO GLYCERINE MRU MOTION EXPERIENCE   VIDEO.


- We have developed today in class a quick experience in which we’ve seen how we can slow down the accelerated dropping motion of an object until getting a simple MRU thanks to the change of the fluid density. We have used air, water and glycerine.

 Through air and water the object dropped motion was an accelerated motion indeed but when using glycerine it dropped at uniform motion and we were able to measure the time and work out the falling velocity.

 * At the article number 113 you can watch the video about doing the experience in class.


- Here you have vocabulary you have to learn for this weekend. I expect you to work it at home :

 1 * make up for = cancel out = balance out = compensate
   (todas estas expresiones significan y se usan para decir COMPENSAR, aquí os  escribo una frase de ejemplo).
                                  " Qualifying as a doctor made up for all his sacrifices "
                       (Titularse o graduarse como doctor le compensó todos los sacrificios).

                     " The movement of an object is made up for the dragging on the ground ".
          (El movimiento de un cuerpo se compensa por la fricción o roce contra el suelo).

2* catch up with = ponerse al día

                                        " I expect you catch up with your homework"
                                      (Espero que os pongáis al día con los deberes).

3* look up = consultar (un libro o una página web, etc).

                                        " Look up the following links, please"
                  o también :    " Look the following links up, please"
                                  (consultar o mirar los siguientes enlaces por favor).

4* called = llamado, nombrado

                                         " In physics this kind of motion is called MRU".
                                (En física este tipo de movimiento es llamado, o se llama, MRU).

5* at least = al menos

                                         " The train hasn’t arrived, at least as far as I know".
                                             (No ha llegado el tren, al menos que yo sepa).

6* last = durar, tardar, persistir, prolongarse, como adjetivo significa el último.

                                          " You really need to win this last race".
                                           ( Necesitas ganar esta última carrera).

                                          " Our food supplies should last for two weeks".
                           (Nuestros suministros de comida deberían durar aún dos semanas).

7* well done = bien hecho

                                            " your got an A on the test? Well done!! ".
                                      ( Has sacado un 10 en el examen? bien hecho!! ).

                         " I prefer my steak well done because I can’t stand the sight of blood ".
                (Prefiero mi filete bien hecho porque no puedo soportar la visión de la sangre).

8* average = media, la media

                                                           " average velocity".
                                                            (velocidad media).

9* for the time being = for the momento = de momento, por el momento

                                     " My car fell apart so I’m using my bycicle for the time being".
                                  (Mi coche se estropeó así que de momento estoy usando la bici).

10* to solve = to work out = resolver, hallar, calcular

                                                   " Have you solved the riddle yet?".
                                                       ( has resuelto ya el acertijo?).

11* work out = resolver, entender, entrenar, practicar, calcular, cuadrar algo, hacer ejercicio físico, arreglar algún malentendido

                                       " We’re going to the gym to work out this afternoon".
                                                 (Vamos al gym a entrenar esta tarde).

                                        " I’m still trying to work out this last crossword clue".
                                  (Aún estoy intentando resolver la última pista del crucigrama)

" I finally worked out my income taxes, and now I have to send the government a check".
( Ya he conseguido cuadrar mis impuestos sobre la renta y ahora tengo que enviar un cheque a hacienda).

                                " They have a lot of problems to work out with their marriage".
                                 ( Tienen muchos problemas que resolver en su matrimonio ).

                                                                 " work it out !! ".
                                                                  ( resuélvelo !! ).

                                        " I can’t work out how many should be left ".
                                       ( No puedo calcular cuántos deberían quedar).

12* fix = arreglar, reparar, componer, preparar
      fix to = poner, fijar, pegar

                                                                " fix it !! "
                                                               ( arréglalo !! ).

                                            " He fixed his bike with some small tolos".
                                (Arregló su bici con sólo algunas herramientas pequeñas).

                                               " Let me fix this poster to the Wall".
                                            (Déjame pegar este póster a la pared).

                                         " We fixed the price at nineteen dollars each".
                                             (Fijamos el precio a 19 dólares cada uno).

                                                " She fixed the meal for the children".
                                               (Ella preparó la comida para los niños).

                                            " Now fix your attention on the taller player".
                                          (Ahora fijen su atención en el jugador más alto).



- Your homework for this weekend is to read, look up and check carefully the following links and webpages :

                                                        LINK 1           LINK 2       LINK 3


  - Here you have a very important demostration you will have to learn and understand, and I will explain it carefully, but if you want to, for the time being, you can go and have a look at it for the momento :

                                                   A)   MOTION WITH ACCELERATION EQUATION.

                                                   B)    VERY IMPORTANT DEMOSTRATION. 

                                                   C) ( you can also understand that demostration here,

   - If you want to catch up with the acceleration lesson you can also look up articles from 23 to 29, but not the number 25, only 23,24,26,27,28 and 29.

                                                          ( catch up with  significa ponerse al día con )


- Next experience we develop on wednesday at the lap will have to do about how a liquid material like glycerin can help us to introduce the accelerated motion and in turn let us compare the uniform motion we have already studied with the accelerated one.

    We will prepare 3 different measuring cylinders in order to compare an object drop through these 3 different materials : air, water and glycerin...we will see what happens and you’ll have to write the results in your workbooks.


- This last wednesday we have developed two experiences about working out the average straight line uniform motion velocity of different objects.

     One of them was to work out the following :

    Students’ walk uniform velocity within a fixed period of time.

    You can see the pic of a mate of you from the class trying to keep his walk as much uniform and constant as possible. The workmate tries to measure the time as accurate as possible.

     They hat to convert the worked out speed from m/s to km/h


- This wednesday we have developed two experiences about working out the average straight line uniform motion velocity of different objects. They worked speeds in km/h.

   1) Cars and trucks velocity on the highway.

   2) Students’ walk uniform velocity within a fixed period of time.

 -  You have here more pictures about what you did :

                   Photo 1     Photo 2     Photo 3     Photo 4     Photo 5


- At the following links you’ll find "A LOOOOT OF" exercises to review the MRU lesson for the next exam on friday, so you only have to study a lot at home and dedicate a lot of time studying them at home  :

1)  MRU exercises 1.

     (You find these exercise’s solutions at the next section: MRU exercises 2, but try not to look at the solutions before you try doing them by your own ).

                          ( "BY YOUR OWN"  SIGNIFICA "TÚ SOLO" , "POR TI MISMO" ).

 2) MRU exercises 2.  (These ones you have the correction below the exercises, but try not to look at the solutions before you try to do them by your own) :

    Photo 1      Photo 2      Photo 3      Photo 4      Photo 5      Photo 6      Photo 7

    Photo 8      Photo 9      Photo 10    Photo 11    Photo 12    Photo 13    Photo 14

    Photo 15

 3)  At the following webs you have MRU exercises with also the solution, and a few of them with a video explaining them as well : (all these exercises are with their solution and the explained solutions are written step by step).





        MORE MRU EXERCISES 5. (De esta solo los 2 primeros ejercicios resueltos).




   4) And you have a few more corrected MRU exercises here :


- You can review the uniform motion lesson here watching at home a few videos I recorded several years ago explaining the most main concepts :

                                 FLIPPED CLASSROOM VIDEOS.

- You can also check this video too :


- Next activity we should achieve is to create a video in which you explain an experiment, concept or whatever we have already studied related to motion lesson. it is expected that you upload later this video on YouTube, using images, videos, music and writing.

 If you don’t remember how to make a YouTube video, you follow the rules given at this technology blog made by your teachers to learn how to edit a YouTube video :

                                                           YOUTUBE VIDEO EDITION.


 - This is the logo you have to look for at your playstore on your mobile phone to download it when writing "diagramas de flujo".
    The APP's name is SIMPLE MIND.


 - Exercise 1 : Follow the instructions given by your teacher to create a simple mind diagram about physics lesson on your mobile phone like the one you see at the pic above.

- Exercise 2 :  It would be nice if you could check at your playstore another app to create a different sort of mind diagram and try to do a few ones a bit different from the one suggested here.  You’ll see there are a lot of more different app about it at your playstore mobile phone.


 - We’ll try to do the following tests in order to check the MRU theory :

  Experiment 0  (It will be explained by your teacher but you have here a brief recap) :
                           We'll go to the top of the highschool at the walkwaytower and we'll note
                           the trajectory followed by one mobil going over the highway that can
                           be seen from our place. We'll mesure the time needed by one of the
                           vehicle to going over the distance teacher will tell you and later you will
                           have to work out the velocity of the vehicle.

  Experiment 4. (optional).

  - Here you have a nice video in which you can watch how the mru main laws are really checked.


 - Here you can check the pic with much more detail :


- Here you can check the pic with much more detail :


 - Here you can check the pic with much more detail :


 - Here you can check the pic with much more detail :


- Here you can check the picture with much more detail :


- You all must know these ways when talking about isolating a variable into an equation: reflect the variable x = reflejar la variable x (cambiar x por -x)
clear the variable x = despejar la variable x (mat) / borrar el contenido de la variable x (comp.)
isolate the variable x = despejar la variable x (dejándola a un sólo lado de la ecuación)
solve for the variable x = resolver para la variable x


- you can look for the same kind of exercises from the last ones, from the 17 number exercise on.


 - Motion with constant acceleration formula :


 - Here you have extra exercicies about MRU in case you wanna practice even more :

   * EXTRA EXERCICES  1. (Let's do exercise n.15)


    - Motion equations :


 - Uniform Motion with Constant Velocity  in a straight line ( MRU or UMCV ) :


                          Fórmula de la velocidad en un movimiento rectilíneo uniforme (MRU)

Fórmula de la posición en un movimiento rectilíneo uniforme (MRU)


 - Today we’re gonna pay attention to motion graphs ( lessons 3a and 3b and lesson 4 of this webpage ) :


- Watch these videos about the difference between speed and velocity :

- Read the following page about speed and velocity difference :

 - Finally you have here a video with an example about calculating speed and average velocity :

 - Here you can practice with serveral exercices :


Frame of reference: When you are standing on the ground, that is your frame of reference. Anything that you see, watch, or measure will be compared to the reference point of the ground. If I am standing in the back of a moving truck, the truck is now my frame of reference and everything will be measured compared to it.

- Read carefully this webpage and study how important frame reference system is :

- If you are really more interested about frame reference significance, it would be great that you watch the following video carefully at home and learn about Einstein relativity theory that are straightaway related to reference system issue :

                     * Einstein relativity theory and reference systems.


A trajectory or flight path is the path that a moving object follows through space as a function of time.[1] The object might be a projectile or a satellite. For example, it can be an orbit—the path of a planet, an asteroid, or a comet as it travels around a central mass. A trajectory can be described mathematically either by the geometry of the path or as the position of the object over time.


Motion (physics)

From Wikipedia :

In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time. Motion is typically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, time and speed. Motion of a body is observed by attaching a frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame.

If the position of a body is not changing with respect to a given frame of reference, the body is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (time-invariant) position. An object’s motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described.


From Wikipedia :

A trajectory or flight path is the path that a moving object follows through space as a function of time.[1] The object might be a projectile or a satellite. For example, it can be an orbit—the path of a planet, an asteroid, or a comet as it travels around a central mass. A trajectory can be described mathematically either by the geometry of the path or as the position of the object over time.


 - Watch this video and compare scalar magnitude with vector mesurement :


- Watch these two videos in order to check properly what distance and displacement are.
   Later prepare with your classmate a presentation (it can be a powerpoint or a video) in which your team explain the differences between both concepts using an example as done in the following videos :



  - I post here a video where I am explaining to you, more or less, what you have to tell at your work or PowerPoint on Friday :


 - For this weekend you have to read article 78 and watch the 3 videos that are posted there about Kinematics (physics).

(Ten en cuenta que en los videos, si le das a configuración puedes poner subtítulos en castellano, por si en algún video te parece que hablan demasiado rápido).




                                           KINEMATICS UNIT. (Cinemática).

    - What do you know about kinematics ? : It is the study of motion and its causes.
             From Wikipedia we see that ... :

Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points (alternatively "particles"), bodies (objects), and systems of bodies without consideration of the masses of those objects nor the forces that may have caused the motion.[1][2][3] Kinematics as a field of study is often referred to as the "geometry of motion" and as such may be seen as a branch of mathematics.[4][5][6] Kinematics begins with a description of the geometry of the system and the initial conditions of known values of the position, velocity and or acceleration of various points that are a part of the system, then from geometrical arguments it can determine the position, the velocity and the acceleration of any part of the system. The study of the influence of forces acting on masses falls within the purview of kinetics. For further details, see analytical dynamics.

Kinematics is used in astrophysics to describe the motion of celestial bodies and collections of such bodies. In mechanical engineering, robotics, and biomechanics[7] kinematics is used to describe the motion of systems composed of joined parts (multi-link systems) such as an engine, a robotic arm or the skeleton of the human body.



                                              ALL KINEMATIC UNIT.


- Here you have a webpage in SPANISH with exercices and explanation about formulation and naming of binary compounds. Use it for practicing :


- Because of the difficulties about highlighting differences between covalent and molecular crystalls I have posted here for you a video in SPANISH to be watched carefully and so understand what each one of crystalls consist of.

(watch the video carefully from the beginning and after minute 5:30 when the real difference is explained).




- Today friday 11-11-16 I wanna you to review the following sections doing these activities:



- For next Monday 7-11-16 you have to do exercises from 18 to 45 from pages 174 and 175. It is not compulsory that you copy the exercises wording.

           ( wording significa " enunciado de un ejercicio" )
           ( It’s not compulsory significa que "no es obligatorio" )


 - Here you have the link to see the picture  in a bigger view :


- Studying oxidation number of aluminium and boron group :


    Read ,study and make all exercices from page 170 and 171, and finish watching last videos from this article 72, and study elements valences!!.


- Next links show you two pictures with main solid properties summerized  :

 - Homework for friday 28-10-16 :



 - Here you have the shape model theory involving valence Shell electron pair repulsion , also called VSEPR :


 - Look the next link up and read about ionic and covalent compound main properties :



 - Read and watch the information attached to this two links, the first is a written explanation about what hydrogen bond is and the other is a video telling the same :


- This homework you have to have it done for monday 17-10-16 :

 1) Watch all videos and links about polarity at the article number 60.

 2) Write up a review about water molecular polarity. (you will have to hand it over to me on monday in a paper apart).


  - This is the homework and tasks you have to do for next friday :

     1) Pag 155 , ex 32.  (Read it carefully because it is a very interesting issue).

     2) Read pages 162 and 163 from the new UNIT 2.

     3) Read and look up articles 48 and 50 from the blog which are related to pages 162 and 163 of your textbook.


                                                        ( LOOK UP significa CONSULTAR ALGO)
                                        ( ARE RELATED TO significa que ESTÁN RELACIONADAS CON)

(ISSUE significa aquí en este contexto un TEMA O ASUNTO DETERMINADO, aunque también significa en otros contextos expedir o emitir).


- Today in class, while teacher is going around student’s tables in order to check your notebook and how you do your work in class, you will have to achieve the following exercices :

 1. Write and draw the Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of Niquel. (when you are done then go to the article  52   and watch the video to check the answer).

 2. Visit the articles number  62 or 53  and observe the periodic tables that are posted there. Then look for 5 hard metalls with high density and another 5 soft metalls with low density. Write the density value in your notebook of each metall you choose and compare their properties.

 3. Do the exercices  19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 28 and 30 from page 154 and 155 of your textbook.

 4. Read carefully the article number  63 ( atom model 1 )   because it is really well written and you can apreciate there the very significance that atom models development has had over the ages of science history. Read this carefully and write an overview about it in your notebook.

5. List the quantum numbers you know and explain what each indicates and means.  Write also which values each can get.



 - In the following file you will find out different expressions to explain whatever you wanna say at your chemistry class :


- Check the following links about how the atomic theory was developed and make a nice summary about it :

- If you need it, you have here a link about it in spanish :


- An empty periodic table to exercice by heart and remembering families and chemical elements :

 - English elements’ name :

Hydrogen, Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium
Beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium
Boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium
Carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead
nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth
oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, polonium
fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine
helium, neon, argón, krypton, xenón, radón
scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium,manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc
palladium, silver, cadmium, platinum, gold, mercury.


  - Here you have tasks to do on guard on wednesday 21-9-16. (Aquí teniu la feina per a fer a la guardia de demà dimecres 21-9-16)

  * TASK 1 :  Finish your homework from the last class in case you have not finished yet.

  * TASK 2 :  Read the page 147 of your textbook and make later the exercice 1 and 2 from this page. (In order to this page read the article 58 of the bloc too).

  * TASK 3 :  Begin to do all the exercises of page 154 of your textbook, if you cannot finish them on guard class you will have to come them to an end at homework.


- Look this link up to know about polarity definition and which ones are the most common polar bonds and why :

                                                         * Polarity and polar bonds.

 - An interesting videos explaining what polar and nonpolar molecules are. It’s told in a fast english but if you watch it several times you will understand the basis of the explanations thanks to the images and drawings and outlines shown at the video :

                                                              * Polarity video.

                                                              * Polarity video 2.

                                                              * Polarity video 3.

 - Read and watch here about water polarity, one of the most important compounds on earth and chemistry :

                                                              * Read about water polarity.

                                                               *Water polarity video 0.

                                                               * Water polarity video 1.

                                                                * Water polarity video 2.


 - Do you really wanna know what an atomic orbital is?  so then come and check the next link and read it carefully at home !! :

                                                 *    WHAT AN ATOMIC ORBITAL REALLY IS !!

                                                 AUFBAU RULE

 - A very slow and nice video explaining all about orbitals, filling out orbitals with electrons and Hund and Pauli principles and rules :

                                                  * Video about orbitals and Hund and Pauli principles.

                                                  * PowerPoint about Hund and Pauli principles.

                                                  * Another video about Aufbau rule and Hund and Pauli principles.

                                                  * One more video about Pauli and Hund principles.



                                                          ATOMIC NUMBER AND MASS NUMBER.

                       (Information got from

- Atomic number (Z) , the number of a chemical element in the periodic system, whereby the elements are arranged in order of increasing number of protons in the nucleus. Accordingly, the number of protons, which is always equal to the number of electrons in the neutral atom, is also the atomic number. An atom of iron has 26 protons in its nucleus; therefore the atomic number of iron is 26.

In the symbol representing a particular nuclear or atomic species, the atomic number may be indicated as a left subscript. 

Mass number (A) , in nuclear physics, the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom. The mass number is commonly cited in distinguishing among the isotopes of an element, all of which have the same atomic number (number of protons) and are represented by the same literal symbol; for example, the two best known isotopes of uranium (those with mass numbers 235 and 238) are designated uranium-235 (symbolized 235U) and uranium-238 (238U).


- Check here the names of each family from the periodic table :

 - And here you have another periodic table with family elements names including metalloids :

                                         Family elements names.


- Watch this video in order to practice how to make an electronic configuration :


- At the following webpage you can read, step by step, about how to write whatever electronic configuration of any element you want :


                                                               LESSON 1 . SECTION 3.

                                                        Binary compounds formulation.

 - Look up the following links :

 3. You can check every oxid formula you want at the following web :


                                               Naming binary compounds. (NOMENCLATURE).

- Look up the next link in 1 and watch the videos in 2 and 3 :

- To name ionic compounds the next link can be useful :

- About Hydrides :



                                                                LESSON 1. SECTION 2.


- Why was Mendeleiev so famous , because of his periodic table? :


                                                                   OXIDATION NUMBERS (VALENCIA).

 - What a oxidation number is and what is used for? :

   3. Here you have a periodic table with the most important oxidation numbers :


    Oxidation numbers are used to formulate chemical compounds to obtain the compound formula, like NaCl or CaO, etc. See here how they are used :



- Teacher’s guide and subject program can be found here :



                     LESSON 1.  SECTION 1. (It matches lesson 7 of your textbook).

                                   CHEMICAL BOND. ELEMENT CLASSIFICATION.

 - Read here about periodic table’s history and how it was developed through several scientist’s work :


 - Elements classification : Metals, nonmetals and metalloids :


                                   (IONIC, COVALENT AND METALLIC BONDS).


             4. Covalent bond :

             5. Ionic versus covalent bond :



- If you have not understand yet what is the difference between an ionic and covalent bond, you have an easier videos here to get it !! :

              * Ionic bond :

              * Covalent bond :




                                                 4ESO .

   - 2016-2017 is going to be the first time Chemistry and physics 4ESO subject will be tought enterely in english in our Highschool INS MARINA (LA LLAGOSTA) , and english resources will be provided online to the students. Teacher really looks forward to students enjoy current subject and it is profitable and useful to their academic future.

  - This year you will be able to find whatever english physical resources of 4ESO PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY you need at links I will post here within the running course :


  - Començarem el tema de ones i moviment vibratori i ondulatori veient els següents videos :

    * video 1 :

    * video 2 :

    * video 3 :

    *  video 4 :

    * video 5 :

    * video 6 :

     * video 7 :

     * video 8 :




   - Aquí teniu un full amb les solucions dels problemes que cal que feu del llibre per a repassar :

   - Al següent enllaç teniu corregits els exercicis 20,32 i 35 que hem fet avuí a clase:

   - Aquí teniu ja els exercicis per a repassar :

        a) Aquí teniu de moment fets i explicats els exercicis 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 i 33:


        b) Aquí teniu des del 34 al  43  :

         c)  I per últim aquí teniu l’exercici 44  :

   A partir del 44 ja són de potencia i palanques i la resta del tema que no hem donat tant, per tant tot el que té a veure amb treball, energies cinètica, potencial i mecánica, força de fregament, etc, ja teniu tots els exercicis per a repassar, que són fins al 44.



- Escolta els següents videos sobre la calor i la temperatura :

    video 1 :

    video 2 :

    video 3 :

    video 4 :

    video 5 :

   * Després de veure els videos, contesta les següents preguntes :

 1- Quina diferència hi ha entre calor i temperatura?.

 2- Per què l’escala de Kelvin és l’escala absoluta de temperatura i no la Celsius?.

 3- Quina importancia té la temperatura i el calor per als materials?.

 4- Quan va començar o iniciar-se l’interés per l’estudi del calor?.

 5- Quina relació hi ha entre l’energia cinètica de les mol.lècules o el moviment d’aquestes i la temperatura?   i amb el calor i dilatació dels materials?.

 6- Per què penses que el calor i les corrents de convecció són importants a la vida i principalment al clima i funcionament del nostre planeta?.

 7- Quines són les principals aplicacions del calor en la industria i activitats humanes?.



  - Al següent arxiu trobaràs exercicis de tot tipus del tema de cinemática organitzats per apartats i amb les seves solucions i resolts mitjançant videos de YouTube, per tant pots veure com es fan seguint les classes que fan els professors que apareixen als videos explicant com es fan els exercicis :




                                                                 TREBALL, CALOR I ENERGIA.

 - Als següents videos podeu escoltar explicacions fonamentals sobre la relació entre el treball i l’energia, i quins tipus hi ha i què és cada qual i com es defineixen :

  video 1 : Video general de 4 minuts sobre el treball i l’energia :

  video 2 : Video més extens i amb detall de 32 minuts sobre energía i potencia :

  video 3 : Video de 28 minuts sobre l’energia potencial i l’univers i tipus d’energia :

  video 4 : Video de 29 minuts sobre la conservació de l’energia mecánica :

 - Aquí us deixaré alguns links perquè pugueu repassar tot el que hem estudiat en aquest tema de treball i energía, des de la teoría fins a problemes :

    1. Pàgina on podeu veure exercicis sobre el càlcul del treball i les seves solucions amb un video on s’explica cada exercici com es fa :

    2. Pàgina on podeu veure l’explicació sobre l’energia cinètica i teniu exercicis sobre el càlcul de l’energia cinètica i les seves solucions  amb un video on s’explica cada exercici com es fa :

    3. Pàgina on podeu trobar explicació i exercicis amb les solucions en videos sobre l’energia potencial :

     4. Pàgina on podeu trobar explicació i exercicis amb les solucions en forma de videos sobre l’energia mecánica :

     5. Pàgina on podeu trobar explicació sobre la conservació de l’energia i exercicis al respecte amb les solucions en forma de videos :

     6. Pàgina on podeu trobar explicació sobre potencia i energía i exercicis amb solucions al respecte :

     7. Pàgina on podeu trobar explicació sobre el calor i l’energia i exercicis amb solucions al respecte :

    I en aquestes pàgines d'aquest blog d'aquest professor podeu trobar molts més exercicis resolts de qualsevol tema del temari d'enguany de 4ESO, així que aprofiteu-ho i pegueu una ullada perquè té moltes coses i a més tots els exercicis corregits amb les solucions en videos!!!.



- Aquí us deixo uns videos que veurem a classe per a començar a fer els problemes d’objectes submergits fent servir el principi d’Arquímedes :

   1. Exercici 1 de flotabilitat d’una esfera :

   2. Exercici 2 de flotabilitat d’un iceberg :

   3. Aquest exercici és d’una premsa hidráulica :

   4. El principi d’Arquímedes :




   5. per què suren els vaixells? :




   6. Exercicis d’Arquímedes més complicats :

       6.1 exercici del pes aparent i empenyiment d’una esfera :


       6.2  càlcul de l’àrea de la part submergida d’un cos que sura :


       6.3  càlcul del volum submergit d’un cos però en dos líquids diferents :


       6.4  càlcul del percentatge de volum submergit d’un iceberg al mar :


 - I si encara tens una mica d’interés i temps pots veure aquest últim video a casa :


 - I en la página d'aquest profesor trobareu una infinitat d'exercicis resolts amb videos, explicats pas a pas i resolts, no solament d'aquest tema de fluïds sinó de qualsevol tema que vulgueu de 4ESO :



 - En aquesta web que us deixo podeu descarregar-vos PDF amb problemes resolts molt interessants de tot tipus de temes, des dels que ja hem donat (cinemática, dinámica) fins als que encara hem de donar (pressió, fluids, energía, etc) :



  - Als següents enllaços pots consultar tot allò referent al tema de dinámica i les forces, les lleis de Newton, problemes, la gravetat, la llei de gravitació universal, etc :

 1) Què és la dinámica (en aquesta web consulteu només què és la dinámica, no mireu l’explicació que hi ha més a sota sobre les lleis de Newton) :


  2) Les lleis de Newton, principi d’inèrcia, F=m.a, llei d’acció i reacció :

  3) Força de fricció :

  4) Relació entre Galileo i Newton :

  5) Diferencia entre masa y peso :

  gravedad :

  6) Gravitació universal :





  7) Problemes :





20160113151856-descarga-2-.png   - A continuació us deixo uns videos per observar el centre de gravetat dd diferents objectes i sistemes, i altres links per a consultar :







20160113152041-descarga-4-.jpg  - En aquest parell de videos teniu exemples de com calcular la resultant de dues forces paral.leles no concurrents i com dibuixar la força resultant i calcular el seu mòdul :



20160130022308-20160112-114602.jpg- Fes click al següent enllaç per veure la foto en gran :

  - En aquesta adreça pots trobar aspectes i conceptes explicats sobre què és una força, magnituds vectorials, components d’una força, efectes que poden produir les forces, sistemes de forces, etc :


  En aquest exercici hi ha un error, ja que al passar els 120 km/h a m/s no són 25m/s sinó 33’33m/s. Però la resta del problema es fa com es veu a la foto, solament que ficant 33’33m/s en lloc de 25m/s.

   - Aquí us deixo alguns enllaços per a repassar i consultar el que hem vist sobre tots els tipus de moviments que hem vist, també aquest últim del moviment circular uniforme :



  - Aquí us deixo alguns links perquè us mireu la caiguda lliure i alguns comentaris al respecte que està molt ben explicat :






    Aquí us deixo la demostració de la fórmula que us he comentat aquest matí a classe perquè mireu els passos de la demostració amb cura a casa, i si no ho enteneu bé el proper dia em pregunteu i ho mirarem amb detall a classe. Aquí teniu la demostració feta pas a pas a la foto que surt en aquest article 23.

  - Aquí teniu uns quants exercicis per a practicar el MRU :

  1. Un mòbil viatja en línea recta amb una velocitat mitjana de 1200cm/s durant 9s , i després amb velocitat de 480cm/s durant 7s, sent ambdues velocitats del mateix sentit. Calcula :
a) Quin és el desplaçament total en el viatge de 16s?.
b) Quina és la velocitat mitjana del viatge complet?.

  2. Resoldre l’exercici anterior suposant que les velocitats van en sentit contrari.

  3. Un mòbil recorre una recta amb una velocitat constant. Als instants t1=0s i t2=4s , les seves posicions són x1=9’5cm i x2=25’5cm. Calcula :

  a) La velocitat del mòbil.
  b) La seva posició en t3=1s.
  c)  Les equacions de moviment.
  d)  La abcisa en l’instant t4=2’5s.

  4. Es produeix un dispar a 2’04km d’on es troba un policia. Quant tardarà el policia en escoltar-lo si la velocitat del so en l’aire és de 330m/s?.

 5. La velocitat del so és de 330m/s i la de la llum de 300000km/s. Es produeix un llàmpec a 50km d’un observador. Calcula :

 a) Què rep primer l’observador, la llum o el so?.
 b) Amb quina diferència de temps els registra?.

 6. Quant triga en arribar la llum del sol a la terra?, si la velocitat de la llum és de 300000km/s i el sol es troba a  150.000.000km de distància.

 7. Un cotxe de fórmula 1 recorre la recta del circuit amb velocitat constant. En el temps t1=0’5s i t2=1’5s , les seves posicions en la recta són x1=3’5m i x2=43’5m. Calcula :

 a) A quina velocitat es desplaça el cotxe?.
 b) En quin punt de la recta es trobarà als 3s?.

 8. Quina serà la distància recorreguda per un mòbil a raó de 90km/h després d’un dia i mig de viatge?.

 9. En una cantonada una persona veu com un home passa amb el seu cotxe amb una velocitat de 20m/s. Deu segons després passa la policia darrere d’ell a 30m/s. Considerant que ambdos mantenen la seva velocitat constant, calcula :

 a) A quina distància de la cantonada la poli atraparà al cotxe de l’home?.
 b) En quin instant es produirà la trobada?.



   Aquest esquema de taula periòdica penso que us pot ser molt útil perquè apareixen indicats els elements mes representatius de cada familia i les valències més importants que cal recordar a l’hora de formular els composts químics.


  En aquesta foto podeu veure com s’uneixen els àtoms en una xarxa tridimensional mitjançant enllaços covalents per a formar no molècules, sinó macromolècules o sòlids covalents amb una xarxa tridimensional extensa.


  Us penjo aquesta foto perquè es veu molt clarament com comparteixen els electrons els àtoms d’hidrogen i el d’oxigen quan s’acosten un a l’altre per a formar els enllaços covalents entre els hidrogens i l’oxigen i finalment formar el compost molecular o molècula d’aigua.


  Aquí teniu de manera clara en aquesta taula com s’organitzen els electrons s i els electrons p a dintre dels perìodes de la taula periòdica per a saber els electrons de la última capa que faran servir els àtoms per a reaccionar amb altres elements, i d’aquesta manera entendre què és la valència d’un element i saber formular més endavant.

   Encara que ja teniu els enllaços per consultar unes taules periòdiques que estan molt bé, aquí us deixo una foto d’una bona taula periòdica per si cal consultar-la rapidament.

   En aquesta foto podeu recordar com és l’àtom de Rutherford i quina estructura té. I recordar on es troben els electrons al voltant del nucli on es troben les subpartícules positives.

   - Aquí teniu la informació que he tret de la Wikipèdia perquè tingueu una altra definició del que és un enllaç químic :


Enllaç químic

L’enllaç químic és el fenomen fisicoquímic pel qual dos o més àtoms o ions s’uneixen per a formar compostos químics, obtenint així una major estabilitat. Per tant, dos àtoms s’enllacen si l’energia assolida en la seva unió és inferior a la que tenia cadascun d’ells per separat. La gran majoria de les substàncies presents en la natura estan formades per conjunts d’àtoms vinculats entre si que, depenent dels tipus d’enllaços que presenten i les seves disposicions espacials, determinen les característiques de les substàncies. Aquests fets atorguen una gran importància a l’estudi de l’enllaç químic, convertint-lo així en una de les disciplines més importants de la química.

Com s’ha dit anteriorment, les espècies químiques realitzen unions entre si per a assolir estadis de major estabilitat, tot disminuint l’energia del sistema; aquesta estabilitat se sol donar quan el nombre d’electrons que posseeix un àtom en el seu últim nivell energètic és igual a vuit (ns2np6), estructura que coincideix amb la del gas noble més proper en lataula periòdica. A més, perquè aquest obtingui una total estabilitat, haurà de formar un enllaç amb una altra espècie. Així doncs, d’aquesta descripció podem obtenir dues conclusions: la primera, que els gasos nobles (tal com indica el seu nom) no precisen d’enllaçar-se amb cap altra substància, ja que són estables per si sols, d’aquesta manera, podem trobar àtoms d’heli (He), de neó (Ne), d’argó (Ar), de criptó (Kr) i de xenó (Xe) aïllats; i la segona, la més important i la que atorga el sentit a la disciplina de la química com a ciència bàsica és que tota la resta d’elements químics tendiran a relacionar-se i reaccionar amb d’altres per a aconseguir una major estabilitat. L’objectiu fonamental de la química serà doncs l’estudi d’aquestes reaccions, així com aprofundir en la composició de la matèria i el seu comportament. L’enllaç químic és, per tant, la disciplina encarregada de descriure les característiques de les unions entre les espècies químiques i les seves conseqüències, tant a nivell microscòpic com macroscòpic.

   - 1. Aquí teniu un link amb videos interessants per a aprofundir en l’enllaç metàl.lic :


   - 2. Al següent link podeu consultar l’enllaç metàl.lic, encara que està molt paregut al llibre, però ho explica amb altres paraules.


     - Aquí al següent link podeu consultar l’enllaç iònic :ç%20iònic

     - Consulta aquest link per a estudiar una mica l’enllaç covalent :




  Aquí teniu el resum que hem fet a classe destacant les característiques principals que diferencien als metalls dels no metalls.


  - Al següent enllaç teniu una molt bona taula periòdica en català on, a més, podeu veure la classificació dels diferents elements en metalls, no metalls, semimetalls, gasos nobles, etc, a més de consultar tota la informació de cada element químic de la taula i les seves propietats més importants :

                                    - Classificació dels elements de la taula periòdica.

   Fixeu-vos que en aquesta taula periòdica podeu escollir la temperatura que desitgeu i us diu en quin estat es troba cada element a eixa temperatura (sòlid, líquid o gasós).

   1.- Al següent link pots consultar dos molt bones taules periòdiques i classificar els elements químics en funció de qualsevol propietat que desitgis, a més de consultar la informació corresponent de qualsevol element químic de a taula periòdica :



       - També, aquí mateix al bloc, a l’esquerra i a sota a l’apartat on diu "ENLACES" teniu un link on podeu consultar una taula periòdica també amb tota la informació però en català, aquí tens el link :


    2.- Als següents links pots consultar informació sobre vida i treball de Dimitri Mendeleiev :


       - I si vols investigar més o saber-ne més informació sobre Mendeleiev i la seva biografia i treball, pots consultar aquesta pàgina que és més extensa :


        - En aquest web pots llegir curiositats de la vida que va tenir Dimitri Mendeleiev :